Recent Trends: Measures taken by SEBI to Regulate the Indian Capital Market

By Nivedita Rawat, fourth-year student at AMity law school, noida

Securities Exchange Board of India [“SEBI”] acts as a watchdog for the Indian Capital Market. The Board enacted by The Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (“the Act”) has been accorded with comprehensive powers under the Act. The preamble of the Board describes its functions as to “protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate, the securities market and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto”. In addition to the intent behind the establishment of the Board, Section 11 of the Act lays down the functions of the Board that clearly illustrate “it shall be the duty of the board to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market, by such measures as it thinks fit”. This provision exemplify that SEBI has been authorized to take any such measures that in its opinion would protect the interest of the investors and would aid to regulate the market. It’s the reason SEBI keeps on revising and updating by formulating new measures or directions that make securities market conducive, safe and friendly for all kinds of investors that include retail or institutional investors. In the past few months, during and after COVID-19 lockdown times, there have been some key instrumental measures that have been taken by SEBI, such as:

  1. Introduction of UPI and Application through online interface for Public Issue of Debt Securities

SEBI, in its circular dated November 23, 2020 announced the introduction of Unified Payments Interface [“UPI”] Mechanism and application through online interface for public issue of debt securities. This system has already been in existence for issue of public shares since January, 2019 but is now made available for public debt securities through this circular issued by SEBI under Section 11 of the Act. The said mechanism is in addition to an already existing specified mode under Application Supported by Blocked Amount [“ASBA”]. It would be available for securities opening up for issuance from January 1, 2021 for applications up to a limit of 2 lacs. The concerned entities include National Payments Corporation of India [“NPCI”], UPI and the Sponsor Bank. 

Analysis: The measure taken up by SEBI is extremely upright as it will make the process of subscribing to debt securities simple for the retail investors, will increase the investor base as the investors will have an option to use UPI interface to block their funds for debt securities during an issue through their brokers/intermediaries. Investing into debt instruments would be as similar as subscribing to equity initial public offerings [“IPO”] as it is now less time consuming and more digitalized. Although the initiative is bound to enlarge the responsibilities of the stock exchange, intermediaries and the sponsor bank, but the prevailing times call for such action as a physical process of issue of debt securities is not only a traditional approach but also make the process cumbersome altogether. Moreover, with the availability of UPI mechanism for subscription of debt securities, enhanced participation by the retail investors is anticipated. It is mainly because until now, the debt instruments had usually been subscribed by the high net investors and institutions, but such a measure by SEBI might change up the things and intends to encourage household investors to be a part of debt market as well.

  • Increased Efficiency of E-Voting mechanisms for Meetings 

The Companies Act, 2013 mandates a company to provide e-voting facility to the shareholders. Section 108 of The Companies Act, 2013 along with Rule 20 of the Companies (Management & Administration) Rules, 2014 provide for such a facility. Additionally, regulation 44 of the SEBI (Listing and Obligatory Disclosure Requirement) Regulations, 2015 also contains provision to this regard.

On Dec 09, 2020, SEBI released a circular directing the listed entities to provide e-voting facility to its shareholders. The mechanism called for a system wherein the shareholders will have an option to forecast their votes directly through their Dematerialized [“DEMAT”] accounts with the depositories which’ll forward their votes to the E-voting service providers [“ESP”]. The process would take place in two phases. First phase, wherein the shareholders can cast their vote either through the depository’s website or their DEMAT account. After which, the depositories will give the confirmation of the votes to the shareholders once received from ESP’s. In the second phase, the depository will set up an OTP system for login. For this new and much efficient mechanism, SEBI has also asked the Depositories and the ESP’s to provide helpline services to shareholders, whereas ESP’s have been directed to provide links for disclosures by the companies and the report of proxy advisors for investor’s awareness. 

Analysis: The entire proposed mechanism aims to ease out the task of casting a vote for the shareholders. Elimination of registration with ESP’s and authentication from the point of depository will ensure security and legitimacy of the votes of shareholders. This is unlike the earlier mechanism in which the shareholders had to visit the ESP’s website to cast their votes with distinct usernames and passwords that created the voting procedure tedious and not very simple. The mandatory updating of key details of shareholders regularly by the stock exchange will also help the entities to be in contact with their users for one stop communication. Additionally, the initiative of providing the link for the disclosure by the entities and links to proxy advisor’s website etc.’ would guide the votes of the investors based on sound rationale, and would also enhance the participation in the e-voting process by the non-institutional shareholders or retail shareholders. 

  • Reclassification rules of promoters as public shareholders and disclosure of their shareholding pattern

Rules for reclassification of promoters have been mentioned in Regulation 31A of SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulation, 2015. On 23rd of November, 2020, SEBI released a consultative paper on the same that proposed a few amendments to the existing rules pertaining to promoter reclassification. It composed of the following proposed amendments:

  1. Promoters with shareholding up to 15%, seeking to reclassify should be allowed with shareholding’s status quo maintained.
  2. One-month duration for meeting between board & shareholders and for reclassification request to be put up before exchange.
  3. Promoters seeking reclassification pursuant to an order/direction of government or regulator should be exempted like reclassification pursuant to resolution approved under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. 
  4. Promoters seeking reclassification pursuant to an offer should be exempted from the reclassification procedure where intent for reclassification is mentioned in the offer letter which needs to be in accordance with SEBI Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeover [“SAST”] Regulations and Regulation 31A(3)(b) and 31A(3)(c) of SEBI(LODR) Regulations, 2015. 
  5. Pursuant to an offer, where the former promoters aren’t traceable by the listed entity or not cooperative towards it, exemption from reclassification procedures should be given if erstwhile promoters aren’t in control of the company and diligent efforts have been made by the listed company to reach out to them.
  6. Mandatory disclosure of promoters.

Analysis: SEBI after having acknowledged the shortcomings of the existing process of promoter reclassification, has proposed amendments which seeks to bring orderliness in the procedure of promoter or promoter entity reclassification. There have been instances where a person is tagged as a promoter of a company in spite of having zero shareholding, this not only influences the choices of the investors but also makes the functioning of a company strenuous. The application of one-month deadlines between shareholder and board meetings and for putting up reclassification request by entity in front of exchange has been done with the intent to Fastrack the whole process and not to have any undue delay. The exemptions made for promoters pursuant to an offer have been proposed keeping in mind the procedural formalities which can be set aside in case where the stance of a promoter has already been clear or when it had been impossible to reach out to them. The disclosure of shareholding pattern by a promoter even in case of zero shareholding is a proposed amendment that aims to curb the companies from misusing the law due to existing loopholes. 


Additionally, SEBI has been looking forward to revamp the grievance redressal system for the stock exchange, for which the regulator issued directions to the Bombay Stock Exchange regarding the clients of the defaulting trading members. All inclusive, SEBI keeps on making endeavors to structure the capital market in the interest of the investors, listed entities or any stakeholders that form a part of the capital market. The recent measures have been taken keeping into account, the shortcomings of the laid down procedures or regulations of investing in share market. The Indian capital market should essentially avail the benefit of the rise in fintech like any other sectors of the economy. Depository participants such as Zerodha, Angel broking, Motilal Oswal Financial Services etc. have reported massive increase in the newly opened DEMAT accounts. It thus becomes imperative to have stringent securities law in place at the moment, especially when the number of retail investors have leapt up to record high numbers throughout the period of lockdowns in the country.

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